Selection of explosion protected equipment for hazardous locations-hazadous-zone-t1-t2-t3-t4-rate-zone0-zone-1-zone-2-zone-3

Selection of explosion protected equipment for hazardous locations-hazadous-zone-t1-t2-t3-t4-rate-zone0-zone-1-zone-2-zone-3

While national regulations exist in some countries, there is an urgent need for an international approach to curb explosion-related industrial accidents wherever workers and communities are exposed explosion risk

All workers in hazardous locations must be declared competent to express their opinions in compliance with the Electrical Machinery Regulation (EMR). Human error or incompetency has been found to be at least one part of the domino effect in major disasters.

Fig. 1: Fire triangle.

Fig. 1: Fire triangle.

All hazardous locations must comply with the Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) Act, as well as with the relevant codes of practice and standards. Section 9 of the Electrical Machinery Regulation (EMR) requires that all hazardous areas be classified and equipment used in such areas be certified. All explosion protective equipment (EPE) must be certified by a locally-approved test laboratory (ATL), as required by regulation ARP 0108. Workers in hazardous locations must receive proper Ex training and be declared competent.

A fire or explosion can only occur if three things are present: fuel, oxygen and an ignition spark. The required ratio of fuel and oxygen varies with each fuel (gas or vapour). Suppressing or separating one or more of these three components can avoid a fire or explosion.

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TEC- Thermoelectric cooler

TEC / Peltier Element Design Guide


TEC controllers are used for thermoelectric cooling and heating in combination with Peltier elements or resistive heaters. Peltier elements are heat pumps which transfer heat from one side to the other, depending on the direction of the electrical current. TEC controllers are used to drive the Peltier elements.
This system design guide provides information about how to design a simple thermoelectric cooling application using TEC controllers and Peltier elements. When designing a thermoelectric application, cooling is the critical part. So, we will take the case of cooling an object as example for the design guide.

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Types of Valve End Connections

Threaded Connections

Threaded connections are very common. They provide a compact and streamlined connection between the valve and pipe.

The valve typically has female threaded end connections, into which the male threaded pipe fits. There are valves with male threaded connections as well, and even valves with one female end and one male end. Threaded connections must adhere to a standard in order to be useful in industry. There are a few different standards that exist. The valve and pipe must both be created using the same standard in order for them to make a proper connection.

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PT100 vs PT1000

Q - What does RTD stand for?

A - RTD stands for Resistance Temperature Detector, but are also known as PRTs (Platinum Resistance Thermometers)


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